Global Biochips Market size and forecast By 2020

Bio-microsystem is a group of miniaturized and integrated devices for biological or biochemical reactions in diagnostics, monitoring, therapy, and research and development. Some of the advantages of bio-microsystems are parallelism, integrated intelligence, low cost, speed, complexity and redundancy. Biochip is one of the examples of technical development of bio-microsystem. Biochip is a collection of microarrays arranged on a solid substrate which allows hundreds or thousands of complex biochemical reactions such as decoding genes in few seconds. Biochips are used in variety of applications such as research application in biotechnology such as genomics and proteomics, drug screening and development and molecular diagnostics. It also offers other diagnostic applications such as microfluidic technologies, microarray and biosensors. Biochip is also used to analyze organic molecules associated with living organisms. Biochip helps in identifying gene sequences, airborne toxins, environmental pollutants and other biochemical constituents. There are various types of biochips such as DNA chips, lab-on-a-chip and protein chips. Chip based analysis is mainly used in on-site diagnostics.

North America dominates the global market for biochips due to large number of aging population and broad technical applications of biochips. Asia followed by the Europe are expected to show high growth rates in the next five years in global biochips market. China and India are expected to be the fastest growing biochips markets in Asia-Pacific region. Some of the key driving forces for biochip market in emerging countries are increasing R&D investment, large pool of patients and rising government funding.

In recent times there is increased use of biochips due to increasing cancer treatment and diagnostics. Rise in personalized medicine, drug discovery and life science research, need for high speed diagnostics and increased government funding are some of the key factors driving the growth for global biochips market. In addition, increasing healthcare awareness is also fuelling the growth of global biochips market. However, limited technical knowledge related to biochips, low acceptance due to high cost and availability of alternative technologies are some of the major factors restraining the growth for global biochip market.

Increasing R&D investment and outsourcing of pharmaceutical companies would lead to growth in biochips market in Asia. In addition, broaden application of biochips products would develop opportunity for global biochip market. However, high cost involved in manufacturing of biochips could lead a challenge for global biochips market. Some of the trends for global biochips market are outsourcing of biochips technology, which would help in reducing labor cost and capital requirement. Some of the major companies operating in the global biochips market are Affymetric Inc, Illumina Inc, GE Healthcare Ltd, Agilent Technologies Inc. Roche NimbleGen, Life Technologies Corporation, EMD Millipore., Bio-Rad Laboratories Inc, Abbott Laboratories and Fluidigm Corporation.

( Source: Persistence Market Research)

Global Genomics Market Outlook: 2015-2020

Genomics is a discipline which analyzes the function and structure of genomes. It uses various sampling, sequencing, and data analysis and interpretation techniques to decode, assemble, and analyze genomes. The knowledge of complete set of DNA helps to identify certain genetic diseases, develop best course of treatment, and contribute to precision medicine.

With the significant decrease in the sequencing costs and rising investments in the pharmaceutical industry, the global genomics market is forecast to grow at a CAGR of 15.1% to be worth $19,938.6 million by 2020.

This growth is further driven by the technological innovations in bioinformatics, increasing clinical capabilities, and more clinically relevant sequencing timescales. However, need of significant clinical investment, lack of funding in the emerging markets, rising consolidation mainly in the instruments market, and ethical and legal challenges will act as a constraint to industry growth during the forecast period.

The global genomics market is segmented by methods, technology, instruments, consumables, services, and geography. The genomics industry is still at a nascent stage with many untapped markets present across the globe. However, the sequencing method is relatively at a mature stage, especially, in the developed markets. As, the scale of genomes data grows, the data analysis and interpretation market is expected to grow at a significant rate in the near future. Next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) technology has transformed biomedical research, making genome and RNA sequencing an affordable and commonly used tool for a wide variety of research applications. As a result, the market has been stressed to manage the enormous data output from this process. Therefore, the complexity and sheer amount of data generated by NGS has led to a need for genomic centers to form bioinformatics teams in order to analyze the output data.

North America is the major market in the global genomics market and is expected to dominate this market during the forecast period, with the U.S. contributing a major share, followed by Europe, and Asia-Pacific. On the other hand, the Asian market, especially India and China, is expected to witness a boost in demand for genomics market during the forecast period, as a result of their economic development, increasing genetic research and development activities, drastically reduced mass scale genetic testing costs, and the growing focus of the major players in this region.

The key players in the global genomics market are Affymetrix, Inc., Agilent Technologies, BGI (Beijing Genomics Institute), Illumina, Inc., Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc., Cepheid, GE Healthcare, Qiagen N.V, Roche Holding AG, Pacific Biosciences of California, Inc., Oxford Nanopore Technologies Ltd., Beckman Coulter Genomics, Inc., Perkin Elmer, Inc., DNASTAR, Inc, Genomatix Software Gmbh, and GenoLogics Life Sciences Software, Inc.,

The global genomics market is segmented by methods, technology, instruments, consumables, services, and geography:

Genomics Methods/Stages
– Sampling,
– Sequencing,
– Analysis,
– Interpretation
– Application

Genomics Technology
– PCR
– Sequencing
– Microarray
– Nucleic acid Extraction & Purification

Genomics Instruments
– PCR
– NGS Platforms
– DNA Microarrays
– Nucleic acid Extraction and Purification Systems
– DNA Sequencers
– Others

NGS Platforms
– Illumina
– Thermo
– Roche
– Pacific Biosciences

Genomics Consumables
– PCR
– DNA Sequencing
– Nucleic acid extraction and purification systems
– Genechips
– Microarrays
– Others

Genomics Services
– Laboratory Services
– Software

Genomics Market, By Geography
North America
o U.S.
o Canada
Europe
o U.K.
o Germany
o France
o Italy
o Spain
o Rest of Europe
Asia-Pacific
o Japan
o China
o India
o Rest of Asia-Pacific
– Rest of the World
o Latin America
o Middle East and Africa

(Source: PRNewswire)

Using deep learning to analyze genetic mutations

Full article written by David Beyer can be found here: Deep learning meets genome biology

  • The application of deep learning to genomic medicine is off to a promising start; it could impact diagnostics, intensive care, pharmaceuticals and insurance.
  • The “genotype-phenotype divide”—our inability to connect genetics to disease phenotypes—is preventing genomics from advancing medicine to its potential.
  • Deep learning can bridge the genotype-phenotype divide, by incorporating an exponentially growing amount of data, and accounting for the multiple layers of complex biological processes that relate the genotype to the phenotype.
  • Deep learning has been successful in applications where humans are naturally adept, such as image, text, and speech understanding. The human mind, however, isn’t intrinsically designed to understand the genome. This gap necessitates the application of “super-human intelligence” to the problem.
  • Efforts in this space must account for underlying biological mechanisms; overly simplistic, “black box” approaches will drive only limited value.

(Source: Deep Genomics)

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CRISPR Timeline

The discovery of the CRISPR-Cas microbial adaptive immune system and its ongoing development into a genome editing tool represents the work of many scientists from around the world. This timeline presents a concise history of the seminal contributions and the scientists who pushed this field forward, from the initial discovery to the first demonstrations of CRISPR-mediated genome editing.

For a narrative perspective of the history of CRISPR research, read “The Heroes of CRISPR,” by Eric S. Lander, in the January 14, 2016 edition of Cell.


Discovery of CRISPR and its function
1993 – 2005 – – Francisco Mojica, University of Alicante, Spain

Francisco Mojica was the first researcher to characterize what is now called a CRISPR locus, reported in 1993. He worked on them throughout the 1990s, and in 2000, he recognized that what had been reported as disparate repeat sequences actually shared a common set of features, now known to be hallmarks of CRISPR sequences (he coined the term CRISPR through correspondence with Ruud Jansen, who first used the term in print in 2002). In 2005 he reported that these sequences matched snippets from the genomes of bacteriophage (Mojica et al., 2005). This finding led him to hypothesize, correctly, that CRISPR is an adaptive immune system. Another group, working independently, published similar findings around this same time (Pourcel et al., 2005)
Discovery of Cas9 and PAM
May, 2005 — Alexander Bolotin, French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA)

Bolotin was studying the bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus, which had just been sequenced, revealing an unusual CRISPR locus (Bolotin et al., 2005). Although the CRISPR array was similar to previously reported systems, it lacked some of the known cas genes and instead contained novel cas genes, including one encoding a large protein they predicted to have nuclease activity, which is now known as Cas9. Furthermore, they noted that the spacers, which have homology to viral genes, all share a common sequence at one end. This sequence, the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), is required for target recognition.
Hypothetical scheme of adaptive immunity
March, 2006 — Eugene Koonin, US National Center for Biotechnology Information, NIH

Koonin was studying clusters of orthologous groups of proteins by computational analysis and proposed a hypothetical scheme for CRISPR cascades as bacterial immune system based on inserts homologous to phage DNA in the natural spacer array, abandoning previous hypothesis that the Cas proteins might comprise a novel DNA repair system.
Experimental demonstration of adaptive immunity
March, 2007 — Philippe Horvath, Danisco France SAS

S. thermophilus is widely used in the dairy industry to make yogurt and cheese, and scientists at Danisco wanted to explore how it responds to phage attack, a common problem in industrial yogurt making. Horvath and colleagues showed experimentally that CRISPR systems are indeed an adaptive immune system: they integrate new phage DNA into the CRISPR array, which allows them to fight off the next wave of attacking phage (Barrangou et al., 2007). Furthermore, they showed that Cas9 is likely the only protein required for interference, the process by which the CRISPR system inactivates invading phage, details of which were not yet known.
Spacer sequences are transcribed into guide RNAs
August, 2008 — John van der Oost, University of Wageningen, Netherlands

Scientists soon began to fill in some of the details on exactly how CRISPR-Cas systems “interfere” with invading phage. The first piece of critical information came from John van der Oost and colleagues who showed that in E-scherichia coli, spacer sequences, which are derived from phage, are transcribed into small RNAs, termed CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs), that guide Cas proteins to the target DNA (Brouns et al., 2008).
CRISPR acts on DNA targets
December, 2008 — Luciano Marraffini and Erik Sontheimer, Northwestern University, Illinois

The next key piece in understanding the mechanism of interference came from Marraffini and Sontheimer, who elegantly demonstrated that the target molecule is DNA, not RNA (Marraffini and Sontheimer, 2008). This was somewhat surprising, as many people had considered CRISPR to be a parallel to eukaryotic RNAi silencing mechanisms, which target RNA. Marraffini and Sontheimer explicitly noted in their paper that this system could be a powerful tool if it could be transferred to non-bacterial systems. (It should be noted, however, that a different type of CRISPR system can target RNA (Hale et al., 2009)).
Cas9 cleaves target DNA
December, 2010 — Sylvain Moineau, University of Laval, Quebec City, Canada

Moineau and colleagues demonstrated that CRISPR-Cas9 creates double-stranded breaks in target DNA at precise positions, 3 nucleotides upstream of the PAM (Garneau et al., 2010). They also confirmed that Cas9 is the only protein required for cleavage in the CRISPR-Cas9 system. This is a distinguishing feature of Type II CRISPR systems, in which interference is mediated by a single large protein (here Cas9) in conjunction with crRNAs.
Discovery of tracrRNA for Cas9 system
March, 2011 — Emmanuelle Charpentier, Umea University, Sweden and University of Vienna, Austria

The final piece to the puzzle in the mechanism of natural CRISPR-Cas9-guided interference came from the group of Emmanuelle Charpentier. They performed small RNA sequencing on Streptococcus pyogenes, which has a Cas9-containing CRISPR-Cas system. They discovered that in addition to the crRNA, a second small RNA exists, which they called trans-activating CRISPR RNA (tracrRNA) (Deltcheva et al., 2011).  They showed that tracrRNA forms a duplex with crRNA, and that it is this duplex that guides Cas9 to its targets.
CRISPR systems can function heterologously in other species
July, 2011 — Virginijus Siksnys, Vilnius University, Lithuania

Siksnys and colleagues cloned the entire CRISPR-Cas locus from S. thermophilus (a Type II system) and expressed it in E. coli (which does not contain a Type II system), where they demonstrated that it was capable of providing plasmid resistance (Sapranauskas et al., 2011). This suggested that CRISPR systems are self-contained units and verified that all of the required components of the Type II system were known.
Biochemical characterization of Cas9-mediated cleavage
September, 2012 — Virginijus Siksnys, Vilnius University, Lithuania

Taking advantage of their heterologous system, Siksnys and his team purified Cas9 in complex with crRNA from the E. coli strain engineered to carry the S. thermophilus CRISPR locus and undertook a series of biochemical experiments to mechanistically characterize Cas9’s mode of action (Gasiunas et al., 2012).They verified the cleavage site and the requirement for the PAM, and using point mutations, they showed that the RuvC domain cleaves the non-complementary strand while the HNH domain cleaves the complementary site. They also noted that the crRNA could be trimmed down to a 20-nt stretch sufficient for efficient cleavage. Most impressively, they showed that they could reprogram Cas9 to a target a site of their choosing by changing the sequence of the crRNA.live streaming movie online

June, 2012 — Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna, University of California, Berkeley

Similar findings as those in Gasiunas et al. were reported at almost the same time by Emmanuelle Charpentier in collaboration with Jennifer Doudna at the University of California, Berkeley (Jinek et al., 2012). Charpentier and Doudna also reported that the crRNA and the tracrRNA could be fused together to create a single, synthetic guide, further simplifying the system. (Although published in June 2012, this paper was submitted after Gasiunas et al.)
CRISPR-Cas9 harnessed for genome editing
January, 2013 — Feng Zhang, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, McGovern Institute for Brain Research at MIT, Massachusetts

Zhang, who had previously worked on other genome editing systems such as TALENs, was first to successfully adapt CRISPR-Cas9 for genome editing in eukaryotic cells (Cong et al., 2013). Zhang and his team engineered two different Cas9 orthologs (from S. thermophilus and S. pyogenes) and demonstrated targeted genome cleavage in human and mouse cells. They also showed that the system (i) could be programmed to target multiple genomic loci, and (ii) could drive homology-directed repair. Researchers from George Church’s lab at Harvard University reported similar findings in the same issue of Science (Mali et al., 2013).

( Source: Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard)

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