Tiny Hard Drive Uses Single Atoms to Store Data

The proof-of-concept device can pack hundreds of times as much data per square inch than the most advanced, commercially available data-storage technologies today.

By manipulating the interactions between individual atoms, scientists report they have created a device that can pack hundreds of times more information per square inch than the best currently available data-storage technologies.

The working prototype is part of a decades-long attempt to shrink electronics down to the atomic level, a feat scientists believe would allow them to store information much more efficiently, in less space and more cheaply. By comparison, tech companies today build warehouse-sized data centers to store the billions of photos, videos and posts consumers upload to the internet daily. Corporations including International Business Machines Corp. and Hewlett Packard Enterprise Co. also have explored research to reduce such space needs.

The so-called atomic-scale memory, described in a paper published on Monday in the scientific journal Nature Nanotechnology, can hold one kilobyte, the equivalent of roughly a paragraph of text.

It may not sound “very impressive,” said Franz Himpsel, a professor emeritus of physics at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, who wasn’t involved in the study. But “I would call it a breakthrough.”

Most previous attempts at encoding information with atoms, including his own, managed roughly one byte, Dr. Himpsel said. And data could be stored only once. To store new information, the “disk” had to be re-formatted, like CD-Rs popular in the ’90s.

With the new device, “we can rewrite it as often as we like,” said Sander Otte, an experimental physicist at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands and the lead author on the new paper.

The researchers first stored a portion of Charles Darwin’s “On the Origin of Species” on the device. They then replaced that with 160 words from a 1959 lecture by physicist Richard Feynman in which he imagined a world powered by devices running on atomic-scale memory.

To build their prototype, the scientists peppered a flat copper bed with about 60,000 chlorine atoms scattered at random, purposely leaving roughly 8,000 empty spaces among them. A mapping algorithm guided the tiny, copper-coated tip of a high-tech microscope to gently pull each chlorine atom to a predetermined location, creating a precise arrangement of atoms and neighboring “holes.”

The team also crafted a language for their device. The stored information is encoded in the patterns of holes between atoms. The atom-tugging needle reads them as ones and zeros, turning them into regular binary code.

The researchers marked up the grid with instructions that cued the software where it should direct the needle to write and read data. For instance, a three-hole diagonal line marked the end of a file.

“That’s what I really love in this work,” said Elke Scheer, a nanoscientist at the University of Konstanz in Germany not involved with the study. “It’s not just physics. It’s also informatics.”

Writing the initial data to the device took about a week, though the rewriting process takes just a few hours, Dr. Otte said.

“It’s automated, so it’s 10 times faster than previous examples,” said Christopher Lutz, a staff scientist at IBM Research-Almaden in San Jose, Calif. Still, “this is very exploratory. It’s important not to see this one-kilobyte memory result as something that can be taken directly to a product.”

Reading the stored data is much too slow to have practical applications soon. Plus, the device is stable for only a few hours at extremely low temperatures. To be competitive with today’s hard drives, the memory would have to persist for years and work in warmer temperatures, said Victor Zhirnov, chief scientist at the Semiconductor Research Corp., a research consortium based in Durham, N.C.

When Dr. Otte’s team took the memory out of the extremely low-temperature environment in which it was built and stored, the information it held was lost. Next, his team will explore other metal surfaces as well as elements similar to, but heavier than, chlorine, to see if that improves the device’s stability.

“There’s many combinations to play with,” he said.

(Written by Daniela Hernandez, Wall Street Journal. Further readings: Nature Nanotechnology.)

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Title : Logan
Director : James Mangold.
Writer :
Release : 2017-03-01
Language : English.
Runtime : 135 min.
Genre : Action, Drama, Science Fiction.

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Logan is a movie genre Action, was released in March 1, 2017. James Mangold was directed this movie and starring by Hugh Jackman. This movie tell story about In the near future, a weary Logan cares for an ailing Professor X in a hide out on the Mexican border. But Logan’s attempts to hide from the world and his legacy are up-ended when a young mutant arrives, being pursued by dark forces.

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Title : Get Out
Director : Jordan Peele.
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Release : 2017-02-24
Language : English.
Runtime : 103 min.
Genre : Horror, Thriller.

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Get Out is a movie genre Horror, was released in February 24, 2017. Jordan Peele was directed this movie and starring by Daniel Kaluuya. This movie tell story about A young African-American man visits his Caucasian girlfriend’s cursed family estate. He finds out that many of its residents, who are black, have gone missing in the past.

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Quality : HD
Title : Get Out
Director : Jordan Peele.
Writer :
Release : 2017-02-24
Language : English.
Runtime : 103 min.
Genre : Horror, Thriller.

Synopsis :
Get Out is a movie genre Horror, was released in February 24, 2017. Jordan Peele was directed this movie and starring by Daniel Kaluuya. This movie tell story about A young African-American man visits his Caucasian girlfriend’s cursed family estate. He finds out that many of its residents, who are black, have gone missing in the past.

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Solar cells as light as a soap bubble

The MIT team has achieved the thinnest and lightest complete solar cells ever made, they say.

Imagine solar cells so thin, flexible, and lightweight that they could be placed on almost any material or surface, including your hat, shirt, or smartphone, or even on a sheet of paper or a helium balloon.

Researchers at MIT have now demonstrated just such a technology: the thinnest, lightest solar cells ever produced. Though it may take years to develop into a commercial product, the laboratory proof-of-concept shows a new approach to making solar cells that could help power the next generation of portable electronic devices.

The new process is described in a paper by MIT professor Vladimir Bulović, research scientist Annie Wang, and doctoral student Joel Jean, in the journal Organic Electronics.

Bulović, MIT’s associate dean for innovation and the Fariborz Maseeh (1990) Professor of Emerging Technology, says the key to the new approach is to make the solar cell, the substrate that supports it, and a protective overcoating to shield it from the environment, all in one process. The substrate is made in place and never needs to be handled, cleaned, or removed from the vacuum during fabrication, thus minimizing exposure to dust or other contaminants that could degrade the cell’s performance.

“The innovative step is the realization that you can grow the substrate at the same time as you grow the device,” Bulović says.

In this initial proof-of-concept experiment, the team used a common flexible polymer called parylene as both the substrate and the overcoating, and an organic material called DBP as the primary light-absorbing layer. Parylene is a commercially available plastic coating used widely to protect implanted biomedical devices and printed circuit boards from environmental damage. The entire process takes place in a vacuum chamber at room temperature and without the use of any solvents, unlike conventional solar-cell manufacturing, which requires high temperatures and harsh chemicals. In this case, both the substrate and the solar cell are “grown” using established vapor deposition techniques.

One process, many materials

The team emphasizes that these particular choices of materials were just examples, and that it is the in-line substrate manufacturing process that is the key innovation. Different materials could be used for the substrate and encapsulation layers, and different types of thin-film solar cell materials, including quantum dots or perovskites, could be substituted for the organic layers used in initial tests.

But already, the team has achieved the thinnest and lightest complete solar cells ever made, they say. To demonstrate just how thin and lightweight the cells are, the researchers draped a working cell on top of a soap bubble, without popping the bubble. The researchers acknowledge that this cell may be too thin to be practical — “If you breathe too hard, you might blow it away,” says Jean — but parylene films of thicknesses of up to 80 microns can be deposited easily using commercial equipment, without losing the other benefits of in-line substrate formation.

A flexible parylene film, similar to kitchen cling-wrap but only one-tenth as thick, is first deposited on a sturdier carrier material – in this case, glass. Figuring out how to cleanly separate the thin material from the glass was a key challenge, explains Wang, who has spent many years working with parylene.

The researchers lift the entire parylene/solar cell/parylene stack off the carrier after the  fabrication process is complete, using a frame made of flexible film. The final ultra-thin, flexible solar cells, including substrate and overcoating, are just one-fiftieth of the thickness of a human hair and one-thousandth of the thickness of equivalent cells on glass substrates — about two micrometers thick — yet they convert sunlight into electricity just as efficiently as their glass-based counterparts.

No miracles needed

“We put our carrier in a vacuum system, then we deposit everything else on top of it, and then peel the whole thing off,” explains Wang. Bulović says that like most new inventions, it all sounds very simple — once it’s been done. But actually developing the techniques to make the process work required years of effort.

While they used a glass carrier for their solar cells, Jean says “it could be something else. You could use almost any material,” since the processing takes place under such benign conditions. The substrate and solar cell could be deposited directly on fabric or paper, for example.Watch Full Movie Online Streaming Online and Download

While the solar cell in this demonstration device is not especially efficient, because of its low weight, its power-to-weight ratio is among the highest ever achieved. That’s important for applications where weight is important, such as on spacecraft or on high-altitude helium balloons used for research. Whereas a typical silicon-based solar module, whose weight is dominated by a glass cover, may produce about 15 watts of power per kilogram of weight, the new cells have already demonstrated an output of 6 watts per gram — about 400 times higher.

“It could be so light that you don’t even know it’s there, on your shirt or on your notebook,” Bulović says. “These cells could simply be an add-on to existing structures.”

Still, this is early, laboratory-scale work, and developing it into a manufacturable product will take time, the team says. Yet while commercial success in the short term may be uncertain, this work could open up new applications for solar power in the long term. “We have a proof-of-concept that works,” Bulović says. The next question is, “How many miracles does it take to make it scalable? We think it’s a lot of hard work ahead, but likely no miracles needed.”

“This demonstration by the MIT team is almost an order of magnitude thinner and lighter” than the previous record holder, says Max Shtein, an associate professor of materials science and engineering, chemical engineering, and applied physics, at the University of Michigan, who was not involved in this work. As a result, he says, it “has tremendous implications for maximizing power-to-weight (important for aerospace applications, for example), and for the ability to simply laminate photovoltaic cells onto existing structures.”

“This is very high quality work,” Shtein adds, with a “creative concept, careful experimental set-up, very well written paper, and lots of good contextual information.” And, he says, “The overall recipe is simple enough that I could see scale-up as possible.”

The work was supported by Eni S.p.A. via the Eni-MIT Solar Frontiers Center, and by the National Science Foundation.

(Source: MIT Energy Initiative)

Webinar: Design and manufacturing of advanced composite spacecraft

When: March 16, 2016, 2:00PM

Presenter: John O’Connor, director, product and market strategy, aerospace and defense, Siemens PLM.

Sponsor: Siemens PLM

Source: CompositesWorld

Significant disruptions are occurring in the space market that include important advances in the use of composite material technologies. Industry experts recognize that the use of carbon fiber, and other composite materials, is growing significantly in spacecraft, satellite, launch vehicle and virtually all other spaceflight-related applications. This trend is being driven by a requirement to decrease weight, increase payload and reduce fuel requirements. This webinar will discuss how the use of composite materials creates unique challenges for both engineering and manufacturing, and provide an overview of the specialized technology that is necessary to address these challenges. Learn how Siemens PLM Software is being used to help companies meet the growing need for composite design and manufacturing solutions in spaceflight applications.

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  • Industry trends related to design and manufacturing of spacecraft, satellites and launch vehicles
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Long-lasting coatings for offshore renewable energy

EU researchers have developed an innovative and environmentally friendly new aluminium-based coating to provide protection for offshore energy installations.

The Advanced Coatings for Offshore Renewable Energy (ACORN) project has developed a new protective coating that will extend the lifetime of marine structures to 20 or more years and avoid the need for supplementary cathodic protection.watch full movie The Invisible Guest 2017 onlineLogan 2017 movie trailer

The result will be an entirely new, non-paint solution for the protection of offshore renewable energy steel structures including docks, buoys, and oil and gas rigs. Once successful, the coating will boost the competitiveness of the industry and help trigger a widespread roll-out of the different offshore technologies.

Corrosion, fouling and cavitation represent a huge challenge for the industry, especially since offshore structures cannot be dry-docked to fix these problems.

Use of a pure aluminium coating

The project involved the creation of a highly differentiated and patentable technical solution that could even be extended in the longer term. It uses thermally sprayed aluminium (TSA) – a substance with proven long-term corrosion resistance – to provide a matrix coating with a lifespan of 20 + years.

This porous mix is then dotted with environmentally-friendly active antifouling substances in very tiny concentrations (< 1 %) which will be gradually exposed at the active surface of the coating as the TSA corrodes away at a rate of 10µm per year.

Project scientists chose a 99.5 % pure aluminium coating applied with the twin arc spraying method. The eco-friendly anti-fouling substances were then chosen for their performance, commercial availability and regulatory approval for use in EU waters.

Scientists also evaluated the inert antifoul carriers for stability in seawater, hydrophobicity and for low processing temperatures to protect the anti-fouling agents. Barnacle resistance tests were then undertaken in marine trials off the coast of Sweden.

Coatings for tidal power to boost lifespan

ACORN is also developing a corrosion and cavitation-resistant coating with a 10 + year design life for tidal energy generators which operate in high-velocity environments.

Three coatings were selected: a tungsten carbide containing alloy, an aluminium oxide and an iron-based alloy. They were chosen for their behaviour under cavitation conditions, compatibility with the substrate material, corrosion performance, a lack of heavy metal content, environmental safety and finally, cost and manufacturing considerations. The three substances were coated onto initial test coupons and assessed for resistance to both cavitation and seawater corrosion.

Computer simulations supported the studies on hydrofoils and model turbine blades in a cavitation tunnel to fully assess each coating’s performance under expected service conditions.

Now that the project is working on the commercialisation of the new coating, it is hoped that this will make a major contribution to providing environmentally safe solutions as global energy demands and a shift towards renewable energies will likely see the construction of more offshore energy installations over the next decades.

(Source: www.phys.org)

World Organic LED (OLED) Market is Expected to Reach $ 37.2 Billion, by 2020

According to a new report published by Allied Market Research titled, “World Organic LED Market – Opportunities and Forecasts, 2014 – 2020,” the world Organic LED market is estimated to generate revenue of $37.2 billion by 2020, registering a CAGR of 18.3% during the forecast period 2015 -2020. Enhanced picture quality, high energy efficiency, increasing demand for eco-friendly products and growing government regulations would supplement the growth of Organic LED market.

Display is one of the major application areas of OLED technology and accounted for approximately 96.9% market share of the total OLED market in terms of revenue in 2014. OLED films are quite durable and capable of operating at higher temperature as compared to LED. OLED offers light emitting surfaces, which are lightweight and thin. OLED displays do not require shutter arrays and backlight, thus enabling the manufacturers to easily replace the heavy and breakable glass used in LED displays with a stronger and lighter plastic substrate. High cost is one of the major restraints for the OLED market. However, it is expected that with the technological advancements and increasing focus of organizations on research activities, price of OLED panels would considerably reduce in future.

AMOLED and PMOLED are the two major OLED display technologies available in the market. Though PMOLEDs are cost effective and easy to build, they are restricted in size and resolution, which limits their adoption. On the other hand, AMOLED are expensive and material intensive, but they do not have any restriction on resolution or size. It is estimated that AMOLED technology would lead the world OLED market during the forecast period to reach $32.0 billion by 2020.

The second application area of OLED is lighting, which is expected to witness a considerable growth over the forecast period.  Based on end users, the report segments the World OLED lighting market into commercial, residential and industrial sector. Among all, commercial segment was the highest revenue generating end user segment, accounting for $245.4 million in 2014. However, Industrial OLED lighting end-user application segment would witness highest CAGR of 53.8% during the forecast period to reach $463.6 million by 2020.

Key findings of the study

World Organic LED market is expected to grow rapidly owing to increased adoption of OLED technology into smartphones, television and lighting applications
Lighting application of OLED technology would grow at a CAGR of 45.8% during the forecast period 2015-2020, owing to rapid technological advancement
AMOLED would generate the highest revenue throughout the forecast period, growing at a CAGR of 16.4% during the forecast period 2015 – 2020
The Asia-Pacific market would foresee tremendous growth for OLED technology. The region would account for nearly 35.9% of the total market by 2020, growing at a CAGR of 16.8% during the forecast period

The report also provides insight into the competitive scenario of the world Organic LED market and a comprehensive study of the key strategies adopted by key market players operating in the world OLED market. Prominent players operating in the OLED market have adopted product launch as their key growth strategy. Some of the major companies profiled in the report include LG Electronics Inc., Koninklijke Philips N.V., OSRAM GmbH, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Novaled GmbH and Universal Display Corporation among others.

World Light Emitting Diodes (LED) Market

World Industrial and Commercial LED Lighting Market

World Automotive Lighting Market

(Source: Allied Market Research, PRNewswire)